à l’anglais, (beef) rare .

à la bourgeoise, (veal: liver; hare), Beauvilliers, L’Art du cuisinier, Paris: Pilet, 1814, vol. 1, pp. 143-144: Have a calf’s liver as indicated above; lard it all the way across with fat lardons, which have been seasoned with salt, pepper, fine spices, powdered basil and thyme, chopped parsley and chives. Your liver being well larded, place it in a casserole that has been lined with strips of bacon, onions, carrots, two cloves, a laurel leaf, a clove of garlic, some veal trimmings, and half a bottle of white wine; moisten it with bouillon: make it go; skim it; cover it with strips of bacon and a round of paper; put a cover on it and seal it; put it for around one hour and a quarter on a straw bed, with fire underneath and on top of it; when it has cooked, pass part of its juices through a casserole and a silk sieve; put these juices on the fire with loaf of butter that has flour rubbed into it to bind your sauce; adjust it if you want with a bit of anchovy butter; strain it; hide your liver in it, and serve.

à l’espagnole, cooked in sauce espagnole  (see below), (rabbit, woodcock, partridge, chicken), Viard, Le Cuisinier Impérial, Paris: Barba, 1806, p. 262): Pluck and gut three partridges of the same size; lightly flame them; truss and tie them up in the same manner as a fatted hen; put a quarter pound of butter in a casserole, the juice of a lemon, a bit of pepper, a slice of ham, put your partridges on slightly hot heat; sauté them very gently so that they do not brown, put in six full degreasing-spoons of sauce espagnole, half a bottle of white wine, a bay leaf, a bouquet of parsley and chives, a clove of garlic; let your partridges simmer for three-quarters of an hour; remove them when they have cooked; skim your sauce and reduce it by half; pass it through a cheesecloth onto your partridges. At the moment you serve it, untie them and arrange them on your platter; leave your partridges in their butter; make a light roux that you moisten with white wine and a half bottle of bouillon that you pour onto your partridges with seasoning; when you reduce your sauce, skim as much fat off it as possible; reduce it until it is bound together enough to serve as a sauce; check that it is correctly salted. One can serve a little ragout with these partridges, to put garnitures in its sauce.

à l’étouffade, variation on étouffé, a form of braising in a covered pot (partridge), Viard, Le Cuisinier Impérial, Paris: Barba, 1806, p. 269: You have three old partridges, which you pluck and gut; flame them lightly; bard them with medium-sized lardons that you season with salt, pepper and chopped, aromatic herbs; truss their feet as you do those of a sautéed fatted hen; give them a nice form; tie them up; then put bards of bacon into a casserole; put in your partridges, a few slices of veal, two carrots, two onions, two cloves, a bouquet of parsley and chives, a bay leaf, a bit of thyme; cover them with bards of bacon; put a round of buttered paper on; a glass of white wine; a glass of bouillon, a bit of salt; let your partridges simmer for an hour and a half, so that they become hard. At the moment you serve them, drain them, put in three degreasing spoons of sauce espagnole; three spoons of game essence; reduce it all by half, and sauce your partridges; if you don’t have sauce, make a light roux, which you moisten with the juices in which your partridges have cooked; pass it through a silk sieve; reduce your sauce by half, so that it becomes flavorful; skim it and pass it through a cheesecloth; pour it onto your partridges.

à la poulette, (veal: brains, feet, ears; cockscombs). Viard, Le Cuisinier Impérial, Paris: Barba, 1806: Put fine herbes in butter; add a bit of flour to it; you moisten it with bouillon; a bit of salt and whole pepper; let your sauce boil for 15 minutes; put your morsels of calf’s head in; let it simmer an instant so it becomes hot; at the moment of serving mix in a binding of 2 or 3 eggs, depending on the size of your ragoût; stir your ragoût only until it binds; do not let it boil with the binding in it because it will turn. At the moment of serving, pour the juice of a lemon or a dribble of vinegar into it.

bouilli, (beef) any sort of one-pot dish of meat and veg cooked together in water such as a pot-au-feu. The strained broth is usually served first, followed by the meat and veg on a platter.

civet, a wine-based stew, (roebuck, wild boar, hare), Beauvilliers, L’Art du cuisinier, Paris: Pilet, 1814, vol. 1, pp. 240–241: Take the shoulders of a roebuck, and cut them in pieces, the same as the collar, (as indicated in the article, Haricot de Mouton); cook bacon in a piece of butter; then strain it and make a light roux with the same butter; cook your meat with the bacon until it gets nicely firmed up; moisten it with a bottle of red wine and about a chopine [unit of measure based on a beer mug, just under ½ liter] of water; season this civet with a bunch of parsley and chives, two cloves of garlic, thyme, bay leaf, salt and pepper; stir it frequently so that it doesn’t stick; put into it small onions, which are raw or cooked in butter; add mushrooms to it; let it cook and skim the fat from it. When it’s cooked, if the sauce is too thin, let it reduce to its degree so that it has a good flavor, and serve it.

en ballon, (mutton, shoulder) Beauvilliers, L’Art du cuisinier, Paris: Pilet, 1814, vol. 1, pp. 184–5: Lift up a large shoulder of mutton and without ruining the loin, entirely de-bone it; cut large lardons; season them with salt, pepper, fine spices, chopped parsley and chives, and aromatics passed through a sieve; roll your lardons thoroughly in this seasoning; lard the flesh of your shoulder without piercing the skin; that done, use a needle for bridles to wrap string all around the skin of this shoulder as if you were making a cloth button; give it the round shape of a ball; line a casserole with carrots, onions, a bay leaf, thyme, basil, and the bones of the shoulder, which you have broken; put it onto this lining on the side of the string; moisten it with bouillon; cover it with a few bards of bacon and a round of paper; make it go; cook it for two or three hours on  a mattress of straw, with fire on bottom and on top, or under a furnace; its cooking complete, strain it, glaze it; and if you don’t have any glaze, pass its base through a sieve; reduce it to a glaze; and use it; put under this shoulder either a puree  of sorrel, or white chicory or jus, a ragoût of small root vegetables, or of espagnole sauce that you will have first tossed onto the base of your glaze, and serve it.

en fricandeau, (veal: sweetbreads), a piece of veal that has been larded and braised.

en gibelotte (rabbit), Viard, Le Cuisinier Impérial, Paris: Barba, 1806, pp. 231—232: When your rabbit has been skinned and gutted, cut it into pieces of the same size, so that some are not harder to cook than others. Put a quarter-pound of butter in a casserole, two rounded tablespoons of flour; make a roux; when it is nicely golden put in your pieces of rabbit to gently brown them; add half a bottle of white wine, about a bottle of bouillon; stir your stew well until it comes to a boil; put in mushrooms, small pieces of bacon, which you have browned separately in a casserole, a bouquet of parsley and chives in which there is some thyme and a bay leaf; put your stew on strong heat so the moisture reduces; put in very little salt, a bit of whole pepper; when it is three-quarters cooked, add, if you want, slices of eel, well-cleaned baby onions, to the number thirty; which you have sautéed in butter on a somewhat hot stove; when they become nicely golden put them in at the same time as the eel; take care to degrease your stew so that your sauce is neither too much or too little bound together. See if the salt is right; remove the bouquet and serve your ragoût.

en papillote, cooked in parchment or another wrapping (rabbit, partridge).

fressure, (veal): the heart, lungs and spleen.

marinade for wild boar, Beauvilliers, L’Art du cuisinier, Paris: Pilet, 1814, vol. 1, pp. 236–237: Remove the filets as you would those of beef or veal; prick them [typically with garlic or pork back-fat]; put them in a raw marinade as follows:  Cut onions in slices; add shallots to them and a few cloves of garlic, cloves, bay leaves, small sage leaves, juniper berries, basil, thyme, and salt in sufficient quantities; put them into half vinegar and half water, if the vinegar is strong; let your filets or any other part of your boar marinate for four or five days; remove them; drain them; put oil in a casserole and brown the two side; that done, place heat above and below and let them cook (one cannot determine the cooking time without the age and size of the animal); drain these filets on a towel and serve them with a sauce poivrade underneath. You can cook your filets on the spit and serve them in the same way with a sauce poivrade.

salmi, (all dark game birds, esp. wild duck, golden plover, woodcock, pheasant), Viard, Le Cuisinier Impérial, Paris: Barba, 1806, pp. 267: At the table, when you want to eat a salmi, carve your partridges; put them on a silver platter that you place on a chafing dish heated by spirits; add salt, pepper, a glass of white wine, the juice of two lemons, with a bit of zest from the peel; a bit of minced shallot that you bring from the kitchen; a bit of crushed garlic, if you like it, a grated crust of bread, which you sprinkle on your salmi; let it simmer for ten minutes and serve it. The salt and pepper must dominate.


à la Sainte Menehoult (alt. spelling Menéhould), Beauvilliers, L’Art du cuisinier, Paris: Pilet, 1814, vol. 1, pp. 41–42: Put a morsel of cut butter into a casserole; brown it with flour; thin your sauce with milk or cream; season it with a bunch of parsley and chives, half a bay leaf, a handful of mushrooms and some shallots; put it on the fire; stir it as for Béchamel, and press it through a cheesecloth; put it back on the fire; add some chopped parsley to it and a bit of coarsely ground pepper and you use it for what you have indicated for it afterwards.

espagnole, Beauvilliers, L’Art du cuisinier, Paris: Pilet, 1814, vol. 1, pp. 34—35:Take two or three cushions of veal, line a casserole with bacon and ham, especially a great quantity of the latter; and proceed in this regard as for the grande sauce; put your veal cushions on top, with about a good spoonful of strong bouillon, five or six chopped carrots and as many onions; color it all as for a generic coulis and put it on low heat, until your veal cushions lose their juices; when the glaze is well formed, which you can recognize from the bottom of the casserole, which should be a beautiful yellow; remove it from the heat; prick your cushions with a knife so that the rest of the juice can run out; moisten them with consommé in which you have cooked a sufficient number of partridges, rabbits or chickens; put in a bouquet of parsley and chives, seasoned with two cloves per cushion, half a bay leaf, a clove of garlic, a bit of basil and thyme; bring it all to a boil; remove it to the edge of the furnace and degrease it. After two hours, bind your espagnole with roux as for generic coulis; when it is bound such that it is clearer than thick, let it boil for half or three-quarters of an hour so that it incorporates the roux; then skim it and pass this espagnole through a cheesecloth into another casserole; put it back on the heat to let it reduce by a quarter. You can use this for all brown ragoûts.

poivrade, Beauvilliers, L’Art du cuisinier, Paris: Pilet, 1814, vol. 1, p. 45: Cut a chunk of ham into twelve little pieces; place them in a pan with a small morsel of butter, five or six sprigs of parsley, two or three sprigs of parsley, two or three chives cut in half, a clove of garlic; place it all over strong heat and when it is nicely browned put in a pinch of finely ground pepper, a degreasing spoon of vinegar, and four spoons of sauce espagnole that hasn’t been reduced; let it go; bring it back to the edge of the stove, letting it cook for three-quarters of an hour, degrease it and pass it through a muslin cloth.

Robert, Beauvilliers, L’Art du cuisinier, Paris: Pilet, 1814, vol. 1, p. 53 (eggs, goose, skate, whiting): Cut six or more, if the situation requires, large onions into rounds or dice them; place them in a pan with butter in proportion; put all of it onto strong heat, sprinkle it with a bit of flour and let it brown with your onions; when all that is done, thin it down with some bouillon; let it cook, add some salt and coarsely ground pepper; and when your sauce is finished, add mustard to it and serve.

translations and definitions (c) Carolin C. Young, 2014.

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